Anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic threshold (4 mmol/l lactate), as well as maximal capacity, were determined in seven cross country skiers of national level. All of them ran in a treadmill exercise for at least 30 min at constant heart rates as well as at constant running speed, both as previously determined for the aerobic-anaerobic threshold. During the exercise performed with a constant speed, lactate concentration initially rose to values of nearly 4 mmol/l and then remained essentially constant during the rest of the exercise. Heart rate displayed a slight but permanent increase and was on the average above 170 beats/min. A new arrangement of concepts for the anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic threshold (as derived from energy metabolism) is suggested, that will make possible the determination of optimal work load intensities during endurance training by regulating heart rate.