The activation of complement by a number of metal compounds, previously found to induce chronic inflammation, was investigated. Results obtained were compared with complement activation by inulin and zymosan. It was shown that complement activation by these metal compounds did not necessarily involve either the classical or the alternative pathways. Some of these compounds were unable to activate complement in the absence of detectable plasminogen. The results obtained indicate a relationship between the ability of these compounds to induce chronic inflammation in the guinea-pig and to activate complement.