1. Fluid transport across rabbit corneal tissue has been investigated by observing the movement of fluid interfaces under the microscope, or by mounting the tissue between two chambers and observing the displacement of menisci within capillary tubes.2. In both cases, the endothelial layer supported on a thin sheet of connective tissue is capable of pumping fluid in a direction out of the cornea, against a head of pressure. The volume of fluid moved may amount to twelve times the thickness of the endothelial cells in an hour.3. This active fluid movement accounts for the prevention of swelling of the normal corneal stroma. The hypothesis that corneal hydration is regulated by the sodium pump in the epithelial layer is not supported by these experiments.