Spleen cells from BDIX-rats bearing either GVlAl-tumor (a syngeneic mixed glioma) or NVlAc-tumor (a cloned syngeneic neurinoma of the peripheral nervous system) were cytotoxic to both tumor cells in vitro. However, the tumors displayed individually distinct antigenic specificities by in vivo rejection tests. Their in vitro cross-reactivity disappeared when a particular subpopulation of the spleen cells was used. The procedure of lymphocyte purification included three consecutive steps: treatment with carbonyl iron and magnetism, passage through a nylon wool column, and finally removal of complement receptor-bearing cells present in the colum-excluded population. Cross-reactivity between the syngeneic tumors persisted after the first two steps of lymphocyte purification. In contrast, specific cytotoxic reactions were observed against each individual tumor subsequent to the removal of the remaining C3 receptor-positive but surface Ig-negative cells. While killer cells were present in normal spleen-cell populations, these were almost completely eliminated by passage through the nylon wool column.