Gallstone disease has been reported to be common in hypertriglyceridaemic patients, especially those with type IV lipoprotein pattern. The object of the present study was to further investigate whether gallstone disease is associated with hyperlipoproteinaemia. Serum lipid levels and prevalence of hyperlipoproteinaemia in a consecutive series of patients with gallstone disease (315 females and 142 males) were compared to a control series (160 females and 94 males). Gallstone patients had higher serum triglyceride levels than those of controls whereas serum cholesterol levels were the same. The prevalence of hyperlipoproteinaemia was the same in both groups but there was an overrepresentation of patients with type II b and IV pattern among gallstone patients. Pregnancies, including miscarriages after the first trimester, and use of oral contraceptives were recorded in the female subjects less than or equal 30 years. Pregnancies and use of oral contraceptives among nonparous women were more common among gallstone patients than controls.