Immuno-enzyme histochemical investigations showed that, in the magnocellular hypothalamo-hypophysial neurosecretory system of the rat, vasopressin and oxytocin are synthetized in separate neurons. Both the vasopressin neurons and the oxytocin neurons are present in both the supraoptic and the paraventricular nuclei in about the same number. Preferential location of the two kinds of rat neurosecretory neurons is not as obvious as in the bovine hypothalamus. Their perikarya do not show distinct morphological differences. The two kinds of neurosecretory perikarya are the origin of separate vasopressin-containing and oxytocin-containing axons respectively. In the neural lobe, the distribution of the two different types of axons is described.