At the ultrastructural level the inflamed oesophageal epithelium shows a variety of lesions. These include mitochondrial damage, intracellular oedema, membrane whorls and dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum and the appearance of keratohyaline and parakeratosis granules. The basement membrane shows changes ranging from thickening to areas of loss of continuity. There is an increase in the anchoring fibrils. The spaces between the cells are enlarged and contain varying amounts of debris rich in neutral mucosubstances. There are less membrane-coated granules in the inflamed epithelium than in the normal. The intra-epithelial intrusive cells demonstrated were lymphocytes and neutrophil polymorphs.