Human adenovirus type 5 enhances the thymidine kinase activity of KB cells but does not induce the enzyme in kinase-deficient HeLa (BU25) cells. Vaccinia induces thymidine kinase activity in both KB and HeLa (BU25) cells. Human adenovirus types 2, 4, 7, and 12 also fail to induce the enzyme in HeLa (BU25) cells. Vaccinia replicates equally well in the presence or absence of HATG (hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine-glycine) in KB and HeLa (BU25) cells. Adenovirus type 5 replicates in KB and in HeLa (BU25) cells in the absence of HATG, and adenovirus type 5 replicates in kinase-positive KB cells in the presence of HATG. However, replication of adenovirus type 5 is grossly inhibited in HeLa (BU25) cells in the presence of HATG. These results suggest that human adenoviruses do not code for a new virus-specific thymidine kinase.