A field trial was carried out in the eastern part of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil) of a vaccine containing killed promastigotes of five stocks of Leishmania. Tests with Montenegro antigen showed that a high proportion of the vaccinated persons became positive within three months, but circulating antibodies were not detected. A proportion of those vaccinated continued to give positive Montenegro reactions for up to three years. Lymphocyte sensitivity tests carried out, on a small sample, three years after vaccination were positive and gave no evidence of immunological depression. No cases of cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in the trial area during the three years of observations.