Relationship Between Iron-Limited Growth and Energy Limitation During Phased Cultivation of Candida Utilis

Can J Microbiol. 1978 Apr;24(4):440-7. doi: 10.1139/m78-073.


The yeast Candida utilis was continuously synchronized by the phasing technique (6 h doubling time) with either iron or nitrogen as the limiting nutrient. Iron limitations resulted in decreased molar growth yields with respect to the carbon substrates and ammonia and in increased specific rates of oxygen uptake. Relatively low energy-charge values were maintained by the iron-limited culture. All these taken together seemed to indicate that the growth of the yeast under iron limitation was also limited by metabolically available energy. Consideralbe amounts of ethyl acetate were produced by the yeast under phased cultivation when the growth was limited by iron but not by nitrogen. In vitro studies using cell-free extracts showed that the substrates for ethyl acetate synthesis were acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) and ethanol. Under iron-limited growth acetyl CoA seemed to be diverted to ethyl acetate formation rather than being oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The possibility of energy limitation under iron-limited growth being brought about by the reduced capacity of the yeast to oxidize acetyl CoA through the TCA cycle is considered.

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / metabolism
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A / metabolism
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Candida / growth & development
  • Candida / metabolism*
  • Cell-Free System
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Ferric Compounds / metabolism*
  • Iron / metabolism*
  • Nitrogen / metabolism
  • Oxygen Consumption


  • Acetates
  • Amino Acids
  • Ferric Compounds
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A
  • Iron
  • Nitrogen