Barrier contraceptive practice and male infertility as related factors to breast cancer in married women. Preliminary results

Oncology. 1978;35(3):97-100. doi: 10.1159/000225264.


A case-control study was conducted in order to test the hypothesis that a reduced exposure to human seminal factors in the early reproductive life of women is a risk factor in breast cancer. The relative risk of exposure to the hypothetical semen-factor deficiency is 4.7 times greater for breast-cancer patients than for the controls. The risk of developing breast cancer within the same population in the U.S.A. is estimated as 5 times greater for women who use barrier methods (condom and other) than for women who use non-barrier contraceptive methods (diaphragm and other). The reduction of the incidence of breast cancer by eliminating the barrier contraceptive techniques would be not less than 50% in married women in the population.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Breast Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Contraceptive Agents, Female*
  • Contraceptive Devices / adverse effects*
  • Contraceptive Devices, Female
  • Contraceptive Devices, Male / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infertility, Male*
  • Male
  • Marriage
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk
  • Semen / physiology*


  • Contraceptive Agents, Female