1. Drugs have been applied micro-electrophoretically to units in the hippocampal cortex of the anaesthetized cat, and their effects on cell firing were recorded simultaneously.2. L-Glutamate rapidly and powerfully excited hippocampal units, an effect which was quickly reversed on stopping the expelling current. The local application of L-glutamate also excited a fast seizure discharge at 15-50/sec. Both these effects of L-glutamate were strongly depressed by fimbrial stimulation.3. gamma-Aminobutyric acid had a strong depressant action on all the units on which it was tested; the time course of this effect was rapid.4. ACh excited half the units to which it was applied. Characteristically this excitation developed slowly over many seconds and persisted after stopping the expelling current. Most cholinoceptive units were found to be concentrated in the superficial layer of the cortex corresponding to the hippocampal pyramidal cells and their main dendritic processes.5. Atropine selectively blocked the excitation of cholinoceptive units by ACh, but not the excitation by L-glutamate. No cholinoceptive units were blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine, though several were selectively blocked by dimethyl (+)-tubocurarine.6. The most usual effect seen with 5-HT was depression, though several units were found to be excited. Some of the units tested with 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) or noradrenaline were found to be depressed.