The clinico-pathological features of five patients with vascular amyloid restricted to the central nervous system are presented. In three normotensive patients, intracerebral hemorrhage was the dramatic manifestation of amyloid angiopathy. In two other cases, one of amyloid in an arteriovenous malformation, the other of amyloid following therapeutic radiation, amyloid deposition was asymptomatic. Clinically, amyloid angiopathy must be considered in the different diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage, independent of the presence of dementia. Pathologically, a factor common to the syndrome of cerebrovascular amyloid appears to be locally increased vascular permeability resulting from a variety of previous tissue injuries.