Summary of clinical trials of influenza virus vaccines in adults

J Infect Dis. 1977 Dec;136 Suppl:S722-30. doi: 10.1093/infdis/136.supplement_3.s722.


Trials in approximately 3,900 adults were conducted with influenza A/New Jersey/76, A/Victoria/75, and B/Hong Kong/72 virus vaccines. Subjects were observed following a standard protocol, and serologic testing was performed in a single laboratory. The data indicate that prior experience of the population with earlier influenza viruses ("priming") is a determinant in response to vaccination. Thus, participants older than 25 years showed good serologic response following a single inoculation of A/New Jersey/76 virus, while younger persons responded poorly. Serological responses to A/Victoria/75 and B/Hong Kong/72 viruses were, in contrast, equally good in the younger and older adults. Whole-virus vaccines were measurably more reactive than split-virus vaccines, a finding more easily discernined in unprimed populations. In the unprimed persons, a single dose of split-virus vaccine was less immunogenic than a single dose of whole-virus vaccine. The presence of preexisting antibodies appeared to reduce systemic reactivity. For adequate immunization of a totally unprimed population, a single relatively large and reactive dose of whole-virus vaccine or two, properly spaced, smaller nonreactive doses of either whole-virus vaccine or split-virus vaccine would be required.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Viral / biosynthesis
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  • England
  • Erythema / etiology
  • Fever / etiology
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / pharmacology*
  • Middle Aged
  • New Jersey
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines