We have produced a monoclonal antibody that reacts with all classes of intermediate filaments in immunofluorescence assays, including glial filaments in astrocytes, neurofilaments in axons, tonofilaments in epithelial PtK2 cells and intermediate filaments in fibroblasts. It also binds to Z lines in skeletal muscle. In SDS-polyacrylamide gels, the antibody binds to most and perhaps all of the major intermediate filament proteins that have been previously defined, including glial fibrillary acidic protein, the three vertebrate neurofilament proteins (the "neurofilament triplet"), vimentin, desmin, several cytokeratins and the neurofilament proteins of squid and the marine worm Myxicola. In addition, the antibody binds to a protein with an approximate molecular weight of 66,000 that may be a component of all intermediate filaments. These findings suggest that all vertebrate and invertebrate intermediate filament proteins share a common antigenic determinant and raise the possibility that all intermediate filaments contain a 66,000 molecular weight protein.