Freely moving rats, chronically implanted with stimulation electrodes in the medial entorhinal cortex and recording electrodes in the dentate gyrus, received two 400 micrograms intraventricular injections of anisomycin during a tetanization procedure that induced a long-lasting potentiation (72 hours) of the monosynaptic field potential. Inhibition of protein synthesis during the tetanization procedure did not immediately influence the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). However, 3-4 hours after the beginning of tetanization the potentiation effect decayed progressively and was abolished totally during the remaining 7 day observation period. In control experiments anisomycin did not affect the slope of field EPSP's and produced a reversible depression of the population spike amplitude. These data indicate a relatively specific effect of the protein synthesis inhibitor on mechanisms involved in a late phase of LTP stabilization.