Three hundred forty-six patients with post-surgical non-small cell Stage I bronchogenic carcinoma were followed from 5.0 to 10.8 years (median, 7.0 years). Recurrent cancer developed in 135 patients (39%). Seventy-five recurrences were nonregional metastases (55.6%); 35 (25.9%), a subsequent primary lung cancer; and 25 (18.5%), local recurrence only. The rate of recurrent lung cancer decreased from 15.0 patients per 100 patient-years the first postoperative year to 2.3 the seventh and subsequent years. The rate of recurrence varied among the three different types of recurrent cancer. Five years after pulmonary resection, 70.0% of patients with T1 N0 neoplasms had no evidence of recurrence compared with 58.2% of patients with T2 N0 tumors (p = 0.012) and only 31.8% of patients with T1 N1 neoplasms (p less than 0.001). There was no significant difference in overall rate of recurrence among the various cell types. Currently, 174 patients are alive. Lung cancer survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 69.1% at 5 years and 61.9% at 9 years. At 2 years following detection of subsequent lung cancer, 51.8% of patients with subsequent primary lung cancer had survived lung cancer compared with 23.4% for those with local recurrence and only 8.9% for those with nonregional metastases.