This paper reports experiments designed to assess the relations between net salt absorption and transcellular routes for ion conductance in single mouse medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle microperfused in vitro. The experimental data indicate that ADH significantly increased the transepithelial electrical conductance, and that this conductance increase could be rationalized in terms of transcellular conductance changes. A minimal estimate (Gminc) of the transcellular conductance, estimated from Ba++ blockade of apical membrane K+ channels, indicated that Gminc was approximately 30-40% of the measured transepithelial conductance. In apical membranes, K+ was the major conductive species; and ADH increased the magnitude of a Ba++-sensitive K+ conductance under conditions where net Cl- absorption was nearly abolished. In basolateral membranes, ADH increased the magnitude of a Cl- conductance; this ADH-dependent increase in basal Cl- conductance depended on a simultaneous hormone-dependent increase in the rate of the net Cl- absorption. Cl- removal from luminal solutions had no detectable effect on Ge, and net Cl- absorption was reduced at luminal K+ concentrations less than 5mM; thus apical Cl- entry may have been a Na+, K+, 2Cl- cotransport process having a negligible conductance. The net rate of K+ secretion was approximately 10% of the net rate of Cl- absorption, while the chemical rate of net Cl- absorption was virtually equal to the equivalent short-circuit current. Thus net Cl- absorption was rheogenic; and approximately half of net Na+ absorption could be rationalized in terms of dissipative flux through the paracellular pathway. These findings, coupled with the observation that K+ was the principal conductive species in apical plasma membranes, support the view that the majority of K+ efflux from cell to lumen through the Ba++-sensitive apical K+ conductance pathway was recycled into cells by Na+, K+,2Cl- cotransport.