Several forms of the polypeptide atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) have been isolated recently from rat and human atria and identified; they are probably associated with the secretory granules of atrial tissue. The potent ability of ANFs to increase urine sodium content is mediated by their direct action on the kidney. We report here the high intrinsic activity of a synthetic replicate of one form of this molecule, ANF(8-33)(ref. 7), to inhibit directly basal aldosterone secretion and its ability to antagonize the stimulatory effects of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and angiotensin II (AN-II) on the secretion of aldosterone by rat adrenoglomerulosa cells in vitro. Our results suggest that ANF is of clinical importance in the management of aldosterone-dependent hypertension by modifying the adrenocortical response to endogenous ACTH and AN-II.