High-affinity uptake of choline and choline acetyltransferase activity (ChAT) were measured in the striatum of rats treated for 45-60 days with haloperidol (1 mg/kg per os) and pimozide (1 mg/kg per os) daily and with fluspirilene (1 mg/kg i.m.) twice a week. Haloperidol and fluspirilene caused a 20%, and pimozide a 38%, increase in high-affinity uptake of choline. They also caused a significant decrease in ChAT activity: haloperidol, 20%; pimozide, 27%; and fluspirilene, 42%. In rats treated with fluspirilene for 65-80 days the metabolism of [3H] choline taken up by striatal synaptosomes was investigated. A 33% increase in total radioactivity, a significant increase in labelled acetylcholine (ACh), a relative decrease in labelled choline, and no change in labelled phosphorylcholine and betaine were found. It is concluded that the increase in high-affinity choline uptake caused by chronic administration of neuroleptic drugs is associated with a parallel increase in choline utilization for ACh formation. On the other hand, the decrease in ChAT activity does not appear to influence ACh formation.