Lysyl oxidase and collagenase activities were measured in experimental acute and chronic liver injury in mice and rats, and correlated with collagen synthesis and accumulation. Acute liver injury was induced in mice and rats by a single dose of carbon tetrachloride given by gavage, and also in mice by a single injection of murine hepatitis virus. Chronic liver injury was induced in rats by repeated injections of carbon tetrachloride. Elevated plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels, increased hepatic prolyl hydroxylase activity, and increased synthesis of collagen-bound hepatic hydroxyproline occurred in animals with acute as well as with chronic liver injury. However, only chronic liver injury appeared to be associated with fibrosis, increased collagen-bound hydroxyproline content, increased hepatic lysyl oxidase and collagenase activities, as well as with increased serum lysyl oxidase activity. These data suggest that lysyl oxidase and collagenase may play an important role in the collagen accumulation associated with hepatic fibrosis.