Pharmacokinetic comparison of sublingual lorazepam with intravenous, intramuscular, and oral lorazepam

J Pharm Sci. 1982 Feb;71(2):248-52. doi: 10.1002/jps.2600710227.


Ten healthy volunteers received single 2-mg doses of lorazepam on five occasions in random sequence. Modes of administration were: A, intravenous injection; B, deltoid intramuscular injection; C, oral tablets in the fasting state; D, sublingual dosage of oral tablets in the fasting state; and E, sublingual dosage of specially formulated tablets in the fasting state. Kinetic variables were determined from multiple plasma lorazepam concentrations measured during 48 hr postdose. After intravenous lorazepam, mean (+/- SE) values were: elimination half-life (t 1/2 beta), 12.9 (+/- 0.8) hr; volume of distribution, 1.3 (+/- 0.07) liters/kg; total clearance, 1.21 (+/- 0.1) ml/min/kg. Absorption of intramuscular lorazepam was rapid. Peak plasma levels were reached at 1.15 hr after dosage, with absorption half-life averaging 14.2 (+/- 4.7) min. Absorption or oral and sublingual lorazepam tended to be less rapid than intramuscular injection, although differences were not significant. Times of peak concentration were 2.37, 2.35, and 2.25 hr postdose for trials C,D, and E, respectively; values of absorption half-life were 32.5, 28.5, and 28.7 min. Absolute systemic availability for trials B, C, D, and E averaged 95.9, 99.8, 94.1, and 98.2%, respectively; none of these differed significantly from 100%. Values of t1/2 beta were highly replicable within individuals regardless of the administration route. Thus, sublingual lorazepam is completely absorbed and is a suitable administration route in clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Kinetics
  • Lorazepam / administration & dosage
  • Lorazepam / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mouth Floor


  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Lorazepam