Using double-label immunofluorescence and electron microscopy we studied the interaction between microtubules (MT) and intermediate filaments (IF) in MO cells treated with various combinations of taxol and nocodazole. With taxol, the organized MT of cultured cells are replaced by free MT and MT bundles. This rearrangement of MT is followed by a rearrangement of the IF. As in untreated cells a close association between these two filamentous systems is observed. In cells pretreated with nocodazole followed by addition of taxol, to induce the bundles of free MT, the preexisting IF coils disappear and IF associate with the MT. From these experiments we conclude that an interaction between MT and IF exists independent of the normal organisation of the MT system. The redistribution of IF always follows the redistribution of MT. The data show that MT determine the spatial distribution of IF which most probably involves some kind of physicochemical link.