1. Acute air exposure of an air-breathing fish Channa argus immediately induced hypercapnic acidemia while total CO2 content of blood remained unchanged. Upon reimmersion, paco2 and pHa quickly restored to pre-exposure levels followed by gradual rise of [HCO-3]. 2. Artificial air ventilation of air-exposed fish restored acid-base status and greatly depressed voluntary air ventilatory movements. We conclude that the major cause of acid-base disturbances occurring during air exposure is the reduced air convection.