In order to understand the physiological role of endogenous insulin or glucagon in somatostatin release, isolated rat pancreatic islets were treated with antiinsulin or antiglucagon antiserum in the presence of physiological amounts of glucose. The release of somatostatin was unchanged by treatment with antiinsulin antiserum which neutralized insulin released by 3.3, 8.3 and 16.7 mM of glucose. However, somatostatin release after treatment with antiglucagon antiserum was much reduced at all concentrations of glucose when compared with the release from control serum. Exogenous rat insulin (0.11, 1.11 micrograms/ml) had no effect, but exogenous glucagon (1, 5 micrograms/ml) resulted in a significant increase. Somatostatin release was stimulated by glucose, but the effect was insignificant. These results clearly indicate the physiological role of endogenous glucagon in the modulation of somatostatin release from the islets of Langerhans. Furthermore, the physiological relationship between A, B and D cells may be mediated through the paracrine mechanism.