Estrogen exposure during gestation and risk of testicular cancer

J Natl Cancer Inst. 1983 Dec;71(6):1151-5.


In this case--control study of 108 cases of testicular cancer in men under 30 years of age, cryptorchidism was a major risk factor [relative risk (RR) = 9.0]. Low birth weight was also associated with increased risk (RR = 3.2). Having severe acne at puberty was protective (RR = 0.37). Interviews with mothers of cases revealed that exposure of the mother to exogenous estrogen during pregnancy created a significant risk in the son (RR = 8.0). In first pregnancies, excessive nausea indicated an increased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 4.2). Increased body weight in the mother also increased the risk. The relation between these factors and testicular hypoplasia is discussed. Severe perimenopausal menorrhagia was a factor in the mother associated with reduced risk of testicular cancer in the son (RR = 0.10). A modified hormonal milieu in the mother appears to be important in the later development of testicular cancer in her sons.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acne Vulgaris / complications
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Birth Weight
  • Body Weight
  • Cryptorchidism / complications
  • Estradiol Congeners / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Menopause
  • Metrorrhagia / physiopathology
  • Nausea / complications
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / physiopathology
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
  • Risk
  • Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Testicular Neoplasms / etiology*


  • Estradiol Congeners