A total 31 psychoactive drugs were offered to groups of naive rats for IV self-administration and an injection rate greater than that for rats offered only saline indicated reinforcement. Two protocols were used: in the first, rats were offered drug at a selected dose for 5 days, then the dose was reduced by 1 log unit (to 0.1 the original dose) for an additional 4 days; in the second, rats were offered saline for 3 days as a "prescreen' to eliminate rats with high or low operant-injection rates. Drug was offered to acceptable rats for 5 days, then the dose was reduced 0.5 log unit (to 0.32 the original dose) for 5 more days. A scoring system, based upon the injection rates during the last 3 days of each period, describes the reinforcing action. Scores were dose-related. Tests on both protocols gave similar results. Data from monkey studies have been reported for 27 of the drugs tested. Of these drugs, 18 were reinforcers and six were nonreinforcers in both species, nalorphine and ethylketazocine were reinforcers only in rats, and ethanol was a reinforcer only in monkeys.