In membranes from rat brain striatum, opiate agonists stimulated low-K GTPase. Half-maximal enhancement of enzyme activity was obtained with 0. 09m microM morphine and 3.8 microM levorphanol. This order of potency corresponded to that of the affinities of these compounds in binding to opiate receptor. The effect was inhibited by the antagonist naloxone. As shown by the use of the enantiomers levorphanol and dextrorphan, only the pharmacologically active stereoisomer stimulated GTPase. In membranes isolated from morphine-dependent rats, the activity of GTPase was reduced 20-40% relative to that in control rats. After the precipitation of morphine abstinence by naloxone, brain GTPase activity was intermediate between the respective values for naive and dependent animals.