Immunocytochemical localization of GABA neurons and dopamine neurons in the rat olfactory bulb was obtained with sheep antiserum to glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and rabbit antiserum to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). GAD-positive neurons include periglomerular cells, granule cells, superficial and deep short axon cells. TH-positive neurons represent periglomerular cells. Two-color immunocytochemistry shows that GABA and dopamine periglomerular cells are separate populations. The accessory olfactory bulb has rare dopamine cells and few superficial short axon cells. Radial gradients of GAD-immunostaining are evident in the main but not in the accessory olfactory bulb.