The effects of smoking and occupational conditions on COHb saturation were studied among employees on traffic duty, in restaurants, in iron foundries, and in an office. The subjects were 139 smokers and 152 nonsmokers working in the same environments. Changes in COHb saturation were observed in samples of blood obtained before and after the working period. Samples of air were collected during the working hours in restaurants, in foundries and in office, 190 samples in all, for the determination of content of CO. Among the nonsmokers there was no change in COHb saturation in restaurants and in office work. On traffic duty and in iron foundries the increase was significant, but the values after work were less than half the permitted occupational threshold limit value (TLV) level of 6 per cent units. In the smoking group the mean values of COHb saturation before work were about twice the mean COHb saturation in the nonsmokers after work. In office work and in foundries the mean COHb saturations after the work exceeded the permitted TLV.