In a controlled, prospective, randomized investigation, started in 1974, 118 patients with supratentorial astrocytoma Grade III--IV were divided into three groups. Groups 1 and 2 received 45 Gy postoperatively to the whole supratentorial brain. Bleomycin in 15-mg doses and a total dose of 180 mg or placebo was given intravenously three times a week, one hour prior to radiotherapy, during weeks 1, 2, 4 and 5. Group 3 received conventional care but no radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Median survival rates of patients were 10.8 months in Groups 1 and 2, and 5.2 months in Groups 3, a statistically significant difference. With regard to performance, the patients in Group 3 deteriorated faster than patients in Groups 1 and 2. Bleomycin had no positive or negative influence on survival.