It was shown that malate dehydrogenase of isolated membranes of the gramicidin S producer Bacillus brevis var. G.-B. (R.-form) is completely inhibited by the antibiotic (approximately 200 mkg/mg of protein). Succinate and NADH dehydrogenases at concentration up to 1 mg per mg of protein are insensitive to it, while corresponding oxidases are inhibited by the antibiotic not more than by 65 -- 75% apparently due to partial damage of the terminal parts of the respiratory chain. The respiration of the producer intact cells is inhibited by exogenous gramicidin S by not more than 55 -- 60%, while the respiration of antibiotic-sensitive cells of M.lysodeikticus is inhibited completely. It was shown that phosphatidyl ethanolamine (50%), phosphatidyl glycerol (15% and diphosphatidyl glycerol (25%) are the major phospholipid components of the membranes of the given strain of Bac. brevis. It was assumed that the resistance of Bac. brevis cells to gramicidin S is partly due to the constant ratio of the charged and amphoteric phospholipids. Using 31P-NMR spectroscopy, the kinetics of free phosphoric compounds in the cells and cell extracts of Bac. brevis during culture growth and gramicidin S synthesis were studied. The content of carbohydrate monophosphate, remained unaffected, while that of nucleoside di- and triphosphates and dinucleotides was low and at definite density and gramicidin S content (above 100 mkg/ml) fell down below the resolution capacity of the method employed. Evidence for gramicidin S localization of the Bac. brevis membrane and possible causes for the manifestation of the NADH dehydrogenase activity at a certain stage of culture growth are discussed.