Venous obstruction in permanent pacemaker patients: an isotopic study

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1981 Jan;4(1):36-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.1981.tb03672.x.


Isotope venography was used to study the venous circulation proximal to the superior vena cava in two groups of pacemaker patients, one with a single endocavitary electrode and the other with multiple pacing catheters. A control group of patients without pacemakers was also studied. Numerous abnormalities were found, especially in the group with multiple electrodes. These findings suggest that venous obstruction is a common complication of endocardial pacing.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Phlebography
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Technetium*
  • Thrombophlebitis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Thrombophlebitis / etiology


  • Technetium