Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase were simultaneously evaluated in 22 healthy males, 29 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy, and 192 patients with prostate cancers at various stages as well as in 30 patients with cancers other than prostate cancer. Both markers were quantitated by specific sandwich-type, enzyme-linked, immunosorbent assays with the use of specific antiserum reagents. Serum assays revealed a discordance between these two markers; thus expressions of these two biochemically and immunologically distinct prostate-specific proteins may reflect different aspects in the biology of prostate cancer. A combination test with the use of 7.5 ng of prostate antigen and 15.5 ng of prostatic acid phosphatase/ml of serum, respectively, as cutoff values resulted in a positive detection rate of 58% for prostate cancers of stages A (7/12) and B (21/36) each, 68% for prostate cancer of stage C (19/28), 92% for prostate cancer of stage D (106/116), and only 10% for benign prostatic hypertrophy (3/29). None of 52 other cancers or healthy controls was registered as positive. This study demonstrates that a multiple marker test of tissue-specific antigens can be of an additive value in the immunodiagnosis of cancer and may be a logical and effective approach at this time, in light of the unavailability of human tumor-specific markers.