Five strains of bacteria (strains 684, 687, U7W, U8W, and MICU-B) that were biochemically and morphologically indistinguishable from Legionella pneumophila were recovered from the environment. Strains U7W, U8W, and MICU-B were antigenically identical to L. pneumophila strain Dallas 1E (serogroup 5), as determined by direct fluorescent antibody staining and immunodiffusion. Although strains 694 and 687 shared antigenic determinants with L. pneumophila Dallas 1E, they could be distinguished by immunodiffusion and differential absorption studies. However, as determined by DNA hybridization, the antigenically distinct strains 684 belong to the same DNA homology cluster as previously described authentic strains of L. pneumophila, whereas strain U7W, U8W, and MICU-B belong to a separate homology group. Therefore, two groups could be identified among these environmental isolates; one represents an antigenic subclass of serogroup 5 L. pneumophila (strains 684, and 687), and the other, although antigenically indistinguishable from serogroup 5 L. pneumophila, probably represents a new Legionella species (strains U7W, U8W, and MICU-B).