We evaluate neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes of low-birth-weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Twenty-six cases of BPD (group A) were diagnosed from 244 neonatal survivors with a low birth weight (less than or equal to 1,500 g) born in 1975, 1976, and 1977. During the same period, BPD did not develop in eight infants with a comparable neonatal course (group B) (received oxygen therapy greater than or equal to 21 days). Twenty-five infants who received O2 therapy five or fewer days had a mild clinical course and were considered controls (group C). The BPD infants suffered more asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, acidosis, and longer parenteral alimentation and hospitalization than group C infants. Compared with groups B and C, the BPD infants had more respiratory morbidities at 4 and 12 months (P less than .005) and more severe neurodevelopmental sequelae at 2 years.