At least two types of large neurons (somatic cross-sectional areas, SA greater than 300 microns2) and five-types of medium neurons (SA between 100 and 300 microns2) were distinguished in Golgi preparations of the adult rat neostriatum. Type I large cells had aspinous somata with long, radiating, sparsely spined dendrites which were sometimes varicose distally, whereas type II large cells had spines on both somatic and dendritic surfaces. Type I medium cells had aspinous somata and proximal dendrites, but their distal dendrites were densely covered with spines. Type II medium cells had somatic spines, and their radiating dendrites were sparsely spined. Other medium cells had no somatic spines: Type III cells had poorly branched and sparsely spined dendrites. Type IV cells had profusely branched, sparsely spined dendrites. Type V cells had radiating and varicose dendrites which could also be sparsely spined. Several small neurons (SA mostly less than 100 microns2) were also found in the rat neostriatum: Some had aspinous soma with sparsely spined dendrites; others had somatic spines. Except for the type II large cells, intrinsic axon collaterals were observed for every type of neuron, indicating that they all had local integrating functions.