Exocrine pancreatic function was evaluated by a Lundh meal test and a secretin-cholecystokinin test in 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis. B cell function was assessed by measuring the concentration of C-peptide after stimulation with oral glucose and intravenous glucagon. The Cc-peptide response to intravenous glucagon and oral glucose was closely correlated (r = 0.88, p less than 0.01). Plasma C-peptide after glucagon was significantly correlated to the post-prandial concentration of lipase (r = 0.72, p less than 0.001), amylase (r = 0.64, p less than 0.05) and to amylase output (r = 0.64, p less than 0.05). Eight out of nine patients treated with insulin had residual B cell function, but it diminished significantly with increasing duration of diabetes. We conclude that B cell function is correlated to pancreatic enzyme secretion and that patients with insulin-treated diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis have a residual insulin secretion similar to that of patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes.