A major developmental transition in early Xenopus embryos: I. characterization and timing of cellular changes at the midblastula stage

Cell. 1982 Oct;30(3):675-86. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(82)90272-0.


The Xenopus embryo undergoes 12 rapid synchronous cleavages followed by a period of slower asynchronous divisions more typical of somatic cells. This change in cell cleavage has been termed the midblastula transition (MBT). We show that at the MBT the blastomeres become motile and transcriptionally active for the first time. We have investigated the timing of the MBT and found that it does not depend on cell division, on time since fertilization or on a counting mechanism involving the sequential modification of DNA. Rather, the timing of the MBT depends on reaching a critical ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm. We view the MBT as a consequence of the titration of some substance, originally present in the egg, by the exponentially increasing nuclear material. When this substance is exhausted a new cell program is engaged, leading to the acquisition of several new cell properties.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Animals
  • Blastocyst / cytology*
  • Blastomeres / physiology
  • Blastomeres / ultrastructure
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure
  • Cytoplasm / ultrastructure
  • DNA Replication
  • Fertilization
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • RNA / biosynthesis
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Xenopus laevis / embryology*


  • RNA