It has been suggested that cancer represents an alteration in DNA, heritable by progeny cells, that leads to abnormally regulated expression of normal cellular genes; DNA alterations such as mutations, rearrangements and changes in methylation have been proposed to have such a role. Because of increasing evidence that DNA methylation is important in gene expression (for review see refs 7, 9-11), several investigators have studied DNA methylation in animal tumours, transformed cells and leukaemia cells in culture. The results of these studies have varied; depending on the techniques and systems used, an increase, decrease, or no change in the degree of methylation has been reported. To our knowledge, however, primary human tumour tissues have not been used in such studies. We have now examined DNA methylation in human cancer with three considerations in mind: (1) the methylation pattern of specific genes, rather than total levels of methylation, was determined; (2) human cancers and adjacent analogous normal tissues, unconditioned by culture media, were analysed; and (3) the cancers were taken from patients who had received neither radiation nor chemotherapy. In four of five patients studied, representing two histological types of cancer, substantial hypomethylation was found in genes of cancer cells compared with their normal counterparts. This hypomethylation was progressive in a metastasis from one of the patients.