Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates the phosphorylation of proteins at tyrosine when added to quiescent 3T3 cells, as evidenced by the increase in the amount of phosphotyrosine, relative to phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, in cellular proteins. The increase was detected within 1 min of adding PDGF and was maximal by 5 min. This effect showed the same dependence on PDGF concentration as did association of 125I-PDGF with the cells. In different 3T3 cell lines the magnitude of the increase was approximately proportional to the number of PDGF receptors per cell. A number of proteins phosphorylated at tyrosine in response to PDGF have been detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. They include a pair of related 45 kilodalton phosphoproteins, a pair of related 43 kilodalton phosphoproteins and a 42 kilodalton phosphoprotein. Similar changes were noted when quiescent 3T3 cells were incubated with epidermal growth factor. Possibly, these phosphoproteins are primary substrates of the tyrosine protein kinases activated by the receptors for PDGF and epidermal growth factor, and are involved in physiological effects common to the two growth factors.