A case of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) in a 41-year-old woman who had received chemotherapy (bleomycin, mitomycin-C, and cis-platinum) for metastatic cervical carcinoma is reported. Before her death, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular heart failure had been attributed to lung toxicity induced by chemotherapy, but the postmortem findings were characteristic of PVOD. The authors support the view that PVOD is a syndrome, not a distinct entity, and present the case as a further example of the many situations in which PVOD can arise. Whether the lesions of the pulmonary veins developed as a result of the chemotherapy or whether the two conditions were associated by chance must remain, for now, a subject of speculation. Pathologists are urged to devote special attention to the examination of the pulmonary vessels in patients who have received chemotherapy.