The effect of acute and subchronic acrylamide treatment on levels of dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites was determined in several brain regions of the rat. Concentrations of several neuropeptides and circulating hormones were also measured. Both a single and repeated doses of acrylamide resulted in elevated levels of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in all regions studied (frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, brain stem, and hypothalamus). Changes in regional content of other monoamines were much less pronounced. Turnover studies following pargyline blockage of monoamine oxidase, suggested results were due to increased rates of serotonin turnover in acrylamide-treated rats. Changes in neuropeptide levels were only detected in the hypothalamus where a single acrylamide treatment caused elevated levels of beta-endorphin and substance P, and in frontal cortex where met-enkephalin levels were higher after repeated acrylamide injection. Such repeated injection caused a major depression in plasma levels of testosterone and prolactin.