A serological study on primary hepatocellular carcinoma in Zambia

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1982;76(4):546-51. doi: 10.1016/0035-9203(82)90160-2.


The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) levels and to detect Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to Hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and in controls free of the disease in Zambia. Virtually all the patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma had grossly elevated AFP levels and about two thirds of them were positive for HBsAg. All the controls had much lower AFP levels and one sixth were positive for HBsAg.

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / immunology*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Hepatitis B Antibodies / analysis
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / analysis
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / immunology*
  • alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis*


  • Hepatitis B Antibodies
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
  • alpha-Fetoproteins