In primate primary visual cortex, staining for cytochrome oxidase reveals a regular array of blob-like structures, most prominent in layers II and III but also present in layers V and VI. In an attempt to learn more about the input to these blobs, we injected the lateral geniculate bodies of macaques and squirrel monkeys with [3H]proline or horseradish peroxidase and looked in the cortex for transported label. As expected, label was present in layers IVa, IVc alpha, IVc beta, and VI. In addition, both methods revealed an array of puffs deep in layer III. Seen in tangential sections, the puffs precisely matched the cytochrome blobs. These results indicate a projection from the lateral geniculate body to the blob regions deep in layer II/III, either indirect via layer IV or more likely direct. In area 18 stained for cytochrome oxidase, we also observed complex banding patterns; these were remarkably similar to the pattern found after [3H]proline or horseradish peroxidase injection and were also similar to the pattern produced with 2-deoxyglucose labeling after stimulation with vertical or horizontal stripes; the proline and peroxidase labels probably represent a projection from the pulvinar to area 18.