(2'-5')(A)n synthetase and RNAase L (a latent endoribonuclease) are among the mediators of interferon action. The product of (2'-5')(A)n synthetase (i.e., (2'-5')(A)n) binds, and thereby activates RNAase L. Interferons induce in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells two mRNAs (sizes 1.5 kb and 3.8 kb), which can be translated in Xenopus oocytes into (2'-5')(A)n synthetases of 20,000 to 30,000 daltons and 85,000 to 100,000 daltons, respectively. (2'-5')(A)n synthetases of corresponding sizes are induced by interferons in EAT cells. In the cell extract the bulk of the larger enzyme is in the cytoplasmic fraction, and the bulk of the smaller one in the nuclear fraction. The only known function of (2'-5')(A)n is the activation of RNAase L, and RNAase L can be selectively crosslinked to a (2'-5')(A)n derivative in a cytoplasmic extract from EAT cells. The same (2'-5')(A)n derivative can be crosslinked to several proteins in the nuclear extract of EAT cells, and some of these proteins are induced by interferon.