Pleural effusion is a common complication in patients with malignant neoplasm. A randomized controlled study of intrapleural instillation of Adriamycin (control group, 30 patients) and Adriamycin Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (N-CWS group, 26 patients) with tube thoracostomy was performed in 55 patients with malignant pleural effusion due to primary lung cancer. The response rates for control of pleural effusion were 73.4% in the N-CWS group and 46.1% in the N-CWS group. These results suggest that intrapleural instillation using a combination of anti-cancer agent and immunopotentiator is an effective treatment for malignant pleurisy. Cardiac tamponade secondary to cancer is a life-threatening complication requiring immediate treatment. Twenty-four patients with malignant pericardial effusion were treated by intrapericardial instillation of anti-cancer drugs, such as Carbazilquinone, Mitomycin-C or ACNU, with pericardial drainage. The range of survival time from the instillation of anti-cancer drug was 3-365 days (average days). In only 4 patients, reaccumulation of pericardial effusion was recognized. There were no serious complications with this procedure. It was considered that local instillation of anti-cancer agents with pericardial drainage was a useful therapeutic modality for malignant pericarditis.