Two hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) [poly(ADP-Rib)] were established. One antibody, 10H (IgG3, kappa), bound to most of the poly(ADP-Rib) preparation, which consisted of molecules of various sizes of more than 20 ADP-Rib residues. The binding of this antibody was inhibited by not only poly-(ADP-Rib) but also a monomer unit of poly(ADP-Rib), Ado(P)-Rib-P. The sites protected by antibody 10H were isolated and analyzed by hydrolysis with alkaline phosphomonoesterase and then snake venom phosphodiesterase. The sites contained the same amounts of monomer units and branched portions [Ado(P)-Rib(P)-Rib-P] as the original poly(ADP-Rib) molecules but a lower average number of branched portions per molecule than in the original molecules. The other antibody, 16B (IgM, lambda), reacted with only 50% of the radioactive poly(ADP-Rib), and its binding was not inhibited by a monomer unit. This antibody protected 25% of all the poly(ADP-Rib) molecules from hydrolysis by snake venom phosphodiesterase. The protected sites contained twice as many branched portions per molecule as the original poly(ADP-Rib) molecules. These results show that the two monoclonal antibodies recognize different structures of poly-(ADP-Rib); 10H antibody recognizes the linear structure with ribose-ribose linkages, and 16B antibody may recognize specific structures, including the branched portions of poly-(ADP-Rib).