Administration of streptozotocin produces a diabetic condition in mice characterized by a specific decrease in amylase synthesis in the pancreas as well as a substantial reduction in amylase mRNA concentration. We have studied this effect in mice of the congenic strains C3H.AmyYBR and C3H.AmyCE with multiple active copies of the pancreatic amylase structural gene. When mice of these strains are treated with streptozotocin, the magnitude of reduction in the synthesis of each amylase isozyme is different. These differences are reflected in the relative activities of isozyme-specific mRNAs in an in vitro translation assay. Administration of insulin results in partial restoration of normal phenotypes. The results provide genetic evidence that individual copies of the amylase structural gene are associated with divergent cis-acting insulin-responsive sequences.