Twenty-nine low-birth-weight infants who survived neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) were followed up prospectively and were last examined at a mean age of 3 1/2 years. The mean gestational age (+/- SD) of the group was 28.9 weeks (+/- 2.4 weeks), and the mean birth weight (+/- SD) was 1,167 g (+/- 292 g). Ten patients (34%) had normal neurologic outcome, and four (14%) had minimal abnormalities. Nine children (31%) were categorized as moderately abnormal, and six (21%) had severe abnormalities on neurologic examination. Intellectual performance was normal for 14 patients (48%), mildly delayed for seven (24%), and in the retarded range for eight (28%). Twelve children (41%), at 3 years of age, had handicapping conditions severe enough to warrant admission to special education programs in the public school. The grade of IVH was related significantly to neurologic outcome; both grade of hemorrhage and birth weight were correlated significantly with need for special education. Intellectual performance was related not only to grade of hemorrhage and birth weight, but also to paternal social class.